cbse class 12 biology syllabus & Recommended books 2017-2018 session

Hi Friends, today we are going to discuss you about CBSE class 12 Biology syllabus with all the best books recommended to score great in the particular subject.This syllabus aims at emphasizing on the underlying principles that are common to both animals and plants as well as highlighting the relationship of biology with other areas of knowledge.This updated syllabus for CBSE class 12 Biology, focuses on reducing the curriculum load while ensuring that ample opportunities and scope for learning within its framework.

As you know very well that Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has its own curriculum and syllabus designed for the students and they hold the supreme authority to change it further for the benefit of students. So it is always a wise decision to keep an eye on what happening around with the subject you are going to learn. This year CBSE made little bit changes in class 12 Biology syllabus.

Class 12th biology book

For Biology of class XII, one can opt from the list of books listed below.

  • Pradip Biology books for class 12
  • NCERT Biology book class 12( NCERT Publication)
  • Trueman’s Biology for class 12
  • Campbell Biology For class 12

Overview of CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus, Chapter wise Biology syllabus for class 12, Class XII Biology syllabus for session 2017-2018.

CBSE class 12 Biology syllabus’ chapter details in brief

Now Let us have a brief look at the salient features asked in CBSE class 12 Biology syllabus.

THEORY: Biology syllabus of class 12 is divided into two segments. The theoretical portion will consist of 70 marks whereas practical will be of 30 marks. Let’s discuss one by one.

Unit Title Periods Marks
6. Reproduction 30 14
7. Genetics and Evolution 40 18
8. Biology and Human Welfare 30 14
9. Biotechnology and its Applications 30 10
10. Ecology and Environment 30 14
Total 160 70


Unit-6: Reproduction                 

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for the continuation of species; modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies, and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post-fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilization, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

UNIT-7: Genetics and Evolution 

Chapter-5: Principles of inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex-linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes. 

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; genome and human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, Comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit-8: Biology and Human Welfare                                              

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, Common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV, and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit 9: Biotechnology and its Applications                

Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, bio piracy, and patents.

Unit-10: Ecology and Environment                                 

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter-14: Ecosystem
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief). 

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
The concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; the importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

Chapter-16: Environmental issues
Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing the environmental issue(s).

practical syllabus for class 12 biology

Practical syllabus for class 12 Biology will be of 30 marks and consist of following listed below events.

Evaluation Scheme Marks
One Major Experiment 5
One Minor Experiment 4
Slide Preparation 5
Spotting 7
Practical  Record+Viva Voice 4
Project Record + Viva Voice 5
Total 30


list of experiments for class 12 biology 

  • Study pollen germination on a slide.
  • Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
  • Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity, and presence of any living organism.
  • Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.
  • Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
  • Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
  • Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
  • Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
  • Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.


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